Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12 results found
Article

Anemia

Anemia is the presence of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Formally, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines anemia by the hemoglobin concentration in the blood according to age and sex 1: adult men: <130 g/L adult women: <120 g/L Values for pregnant women and children are different. Pat...
Article

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are known to occur in association with several tumors. The genes codes for an enzyme called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ALK tyrosine kinase receptor / CD246 which is thought o play a role in the brain development and exerts its effects...
Article

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Associations Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is sometimes associated with immunodeficiency, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pathology Classification In the 2016 WHO classification of ...
Article

Eosinophil

Eosinophils, also less commonly known as acidophils, are myeloid granulocytes and form one of the main types of white blood cells. Their counts are routinely measured as part of a full blood count. They have important roles in fighting parasitic infections, but are increasingly recognized as hav...
Article

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific marker of acute inflammation which is seen in a very wide spectrum of pathologies. In recent years it has been sidelined by the use of C-reactive protein and other acute phase markers but it still has an important role to play in the managem...
Article

Extranodal extension

Extranodal extension refers to the growth of a nodal cancer metastasis beyond the confines of the capsule of the lymph node into adjacent tissues. Less preferred synonyms include extranodal spread, extracapsular extension, or extracapsular spread. This finding holds prognostic implications. For ...
Article

Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful microorganisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defenses to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. innate imm...
Article

Iron

Iron (chemical symbol Fe) is one of the trace elements that is essential for normal human health due to its central importance in the structure and function of hemoglobin and the cytochromes. Chemistry Basic chemistry Iron is a transition metal with atomic number 26 and an atomic weight of 55...
Article

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is a key enzyme in most cells, catalyzing the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate. Its contemporaneous main clinical uses are limited primarily to the investigation of hemolysis, serous collections and as a tumor marker. Physiology L-lactate dehydro...
Article

Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages.
Article

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is not a single compound but a family of fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal blood-clotting function and comprises two vitamers that are found naturally: phytomenadione (also known as phylloquinone or K1) and menaquinone (or K2). Menaquinone (K2) is synthesized by normal flora i...
Article

White blood cell

White blood cells or leukocytes are one of the main cell types found in normal human blood. They are actually colourless and divided into granular and non-granular types. Types of white blood cell: granular neutrophils eosinophils basophils non-granular lymphocytes monocytes See also r...

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