Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

13 results found
Article

Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is a key enzyme, for energy production in mitochondria and muscle tissues. It is important as a diagnostic assay in clinical practice, primarily because inflamed/injured muscle releases creatine kinase into the circulation 1. Phy...
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Fracture healing

Fracture healing occurs naturally after traumatic bony disruption. This process begins with hemorrhage and progresses through three stages: inflammatory reparative remodelling This process can be supported by various treatment options with immobilization a mainstay; inappropriate treatment m...
Article

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasias, also known as Masson tumors, are rare non-neoplastic vascular proliferations. Clinical presentation Patients usually present with an enlarging soft tissue mass 1. Pathology The lesion is a reactive process characterized by endothelial cell pr...
Article

Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
Article

Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...
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Monomelic

Monomelic is typically used to refer to a condition that is confined to only one limb. Examples of conditions that can be monomelic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
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Monostotic

Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
Article

Osteitis

Osteitis is an inflammation of the bone. This inflammation is often caused by bacterial infections but may be idiopathic. Terminology Osteitis refers only to the inflammation of bony structures, in particular the cortex (non-medullary infection) 1,2. If there is an additional inflammatory invo...
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Polyostotic

Polyostotic is term used to describe a condition involving multiple bones. Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic monomelic
Article

Vitamin A

Vitamin A are a group of fat-soluble vitamers (the retinoids) required for many physiological functions, mainly vision, reproduction and epithelial maintenance. In the retina, a specific retinoid, 11-cis-retinal, is formed by photoisomerisation within the rods and cones. Related pathology Path...
Article

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme for the formation of the structure protein collagen, particularly creating cross-linking of collagen fibers which greatly increases its tensile strength. It also acts as an antioxidant. History and etymology Vitamin C was ...
Article

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (calciferol) is used to describe a group of five fat-soluble secosteroid vitamins required for the homeostasis of serum calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D exists in two main forms (vitamers) in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).  Vitamin D3 acts by re...
Article

Vitamin D deficiency (overview)

Vitamin D deficiency (also known as hypovitaminosis D) is common, and untreated, may result in serious sequelae. Traditionally its pathological manifestations have been regarded through the lens of skeletal maturity: rickets in children osteomalacia in adults However it has become increasingl...

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