Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

22 results found
Article

2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumors related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016), it is still the most widely used classification system although a new revision is due to come up in ...
Article

BRAF

BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase) is a proto-oncogene, encoding for a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations of BRAF are the most common alteration of the RAS/MAPK pathway and these have been identified in a variety of tumors and congenital syndromes including 1-5: ...
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CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Mullerian and coelomic epithelial-derived cell types, and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section be...
Article

CA 15-3

Carcinoma antigen 15-3, usually shortened to CA 15-3 is a tumor marker used in monitoring breast cancer. The test detects levels of MUC-1, a mucin protein in the blood. MUC-1 is thought to be important in the invasiveness and metastasization of cancer cells. Physiology MUC-1 is a normal epithe...
Article

CA 19-9

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen 19-9) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-maligna...
Article

CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumor marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumors of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with its ...
Article

Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumor markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is ...
Article

Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME)). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤...
Article

Elevated vitamin B12

Elevated vitamin B12 (also known as hypervitaminosis B12 or hypercobalaminemia) is most important as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for malignant disease 1,3. Very high serum levels of vitamin B12 do not seem to have any observable deleterious effects 2. 
Article

Eosinophil

Eosinophils, also less commonly known as acidophils, are myeloid granulocytes and form one of the main types of white blood cells. Their counts are routinely measured as part of a full blood count. They have important roles in fighting parasitic infections, but are increasingly recognized as hav...
Article

Exophytic (definition)

Exophytic is a descriptive term used by radiologists/pathologists to describe solid organ lesions arising from the outer surface of the organ of origin. Literally exophytic only refers to those lesions arising from the outer surface, however radiologists and pathologists use the term to include...
Article

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is a key enzyme in most cells, catalyzing the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate. Its contemporaneous main clinical uses are limited primarily to the investigation of hemolysis, serous collections and as a tumor marker. Physiology L-lactate dehydro...
Article

Malignant transformation

Malignant transformation is the term given to the process whereby either normal, metaplastic, or benign neoplastic tissue, becomes a cancer. The process usually occurs in a series of steps and the affected tissue gradually accumulates the genetic mutations that express a malignant phenotype. The...
Article

Micrometastasis

Micrometastases are defined by the UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors as conglomerations of tumor cells measuring between 0.2 mm and 2 mm in size. Clusters of cells sized less than 0.2 mm in maximal dimension are termed isolated tumor cells (ITCs). Tumor clusters measuring larger than 2...
Article

Myoinositol peak

Myoinositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myoinositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and of phosphatidylino...
Article

p16

p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker indicating expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, which is upregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the uterine cervix, p16 positivity supports the diagnosis of a high-grade squamous intraepithelia...
Article

Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumor marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore ...
Article

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that has become an increasingly prominent imaging biomarker 1. PSMA has emerged as a useful target in PET imaging of prostate cancer, especially in the evaluation of sm...
Article

Sentinel lymph node

Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are defined as those lymph nodes that directly drain a malignancy, or alternatively can be considered as the first node(s) that a tumor metastasizes to. History and etymology "Sentinel node" as the initial draining node of a malignancy was first used in a paper writ...
Article

TP53 (gene)

The TP53 gene, located on chromosome 17, is a tumor suppressor gene, responsible for the production of the p53 protein, a transcription regulatory protein which works in concert with a number of other proteins, together forming the p53 pathway 1,2. Inherited mutations in this gene result in the...
Article

Tumor markers

Tumor markers are a group of molecules in serum that are elevated in various malignancies and are often used to monitor treatment response as well as alert for potential progressive disease when in remission. Commonly used markers include: AFP (alpha fetoprotein) beta-hCG CA 15-3 CA 19-9 C...
Article

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...

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