Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

8 results found
Article

Citrate peak

Citrate is a compound examined in MR spectroscopy in the setting of possible prostate carcinoma. Citrate resonates at 2.6 ppm and is decreased in prostate cancer.  For more information go to: MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer
Article

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents consisting of microbubbles/nanobubbles of gas. First-generation ultrasound contrast agents contained microbubbles of air that were dissolved in blood when exposed to acoustic pressure in the ultrasoun...
Article

Loopogram

A loopogram is a fluoroscopic study of an ileal conduit, which is a type of urinary diversion. Terminology This procedure is also known is an ileal conduitogram, ileal loopography or ileostoureterography.  Procedure It is a retrograde study in which contrast is injected via the anterior abdo...
Article

Pseudoenhancement

Pseudoenhancement is an artifact encountered with contrast-enhanced CT, whereby the calculated density of a lesion is inaccurately increased. This phenomenon is most often problematic during evaluation of renal cysts by CT. On CT, it can be challenging to distinguish cystic versus solid renal l...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: ~ 1 day normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) ex...
Article

Twinkling artifact

Twinkling artifact is the result of intrinsic machine noise seen with color Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colors on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as calculi), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an associa...
Article

Vicarious contrast material excretion

Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal excretion.  The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...

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