Citrate is a compound examined in MR spectroscopy in the setting of possible prostate carcinoma. Citrate resonates at 2.6 ppm and is decreased in prostate cancer.
For more information go to: MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents consisting of microbubbles/nanobubbles of gas.
First-generation ultrasound contrast agents contained microbubbles of air that were dissolved in blood when exposed to acoustic pressure in the ultrasoun...
A loopogram is a fluoroscopic study of an ileal conduit, which is a type of urinary diversion.
This procedure is also known is an ileal conduitogram, ileal loopography or ileostoureterography.
It is a retrograde study in which contrast is injected via the anterior abdo...
Pseudoenhancement is an artifact encountered with contrast-enhanced CT, whereby the calculated density of a lesion is inaccurately increased. This phenomenon is most often problematic during evaluation of renal cysts by CT.
On CT, it can be challenging to distinguish cystic versus solid renal l...
Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging.
photon energy: 140 KeV
physical half life: 6 hours
biological half life: 4 hours
normal distribution: kidneys (100%)
uptake by tubular secretion (9...
Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach.
photon energy: 140 keV
physical half-life: 6 hours
biological half-life: ~ 1 day
normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles)
Twinkling artifact is the result of intrinsic machine noise seen with color Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colors on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as calculi), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an associa...
Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal excretion.
The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...