Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

18 results found
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
Article

Dacryocystography

Dacryocystography (DCG) is a fluoroscopic contrast examination of the nasolacrimal apparatus. The nasolacrimal duct is cannulated enabling iodinated contrast to be instilled into the nasolacrimal system. Indications The most frequent indication is epiphora: excessive tearing or watering of the...
Article

Facial bones (reverse Waters)

The acanthioparietal or reverse water's view modified Water's view used in trauma. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensitive CT scans. Patient position the ...
Article

Hair artifact

Hair artifact and hair-product artifacts are artifacts produced by the presence of the patient's hair across the field of view during acquisition of an image, which can affect all modalities to varying degrees.
Article

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...
Article

Modified Stenvers view

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is primarily used to assess electrode placement following the insertion of a cochlear implant. Specifically it assesses the: integrity, positioning, and dep...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1, example 2 Ultrasound example 1 CT soft tissue contra...
Article

Orthopantomography

The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, panotomogram or an OPG) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way ...
Article

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull AP view is a nonangled AP radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the back of patient's head is placed against the image detector Technical factors anterior-posterior projection...
Article

Skull (Caldwell view)

The Caldwell view is a caudally angled PA radiograph of the skull, designed to better visualize the paranasal sinuses, especially the frontal sinus. Patient position the patient is seated in front of the upright detector the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector forehead an...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull PA view is a non-angled PA radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the patient is erect the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector allowing for the nose to be in...
Article

Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often a last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. However, it is still utilized in the setting of skeletal sur...
Article

Skull (Towne view)

The Towne view is an angled AP radiograph of the skull, used to evaluate for fractures of the skull and neoplastic changes. The projection is used to visualize the petrous part of the pyramids, the dorsum sellae and the posterior clinoid processes, which are visible in the shadow of the foramen ...
Article

Skull (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensi...
Article

Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Article

Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualization of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.  Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...

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