Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

28 results found
Article

Abdomen radiograph (pediatric)

The abdomen radiograph is a commonly requested examination in the pediatric patient. Children that present for abdominal x-rays are often very unwell, therefore specialized techniques and appropriate communication are essential for gaining the child's cooperation.  Indications Performing abdom...
Article

Baumann angle

Baumann angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is used for the evaluation of the displacement of  pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is measured on a frontal radiograph, with elbow in extension. This angle is formed  by the humeral axis and a straight line through the epi...
Article

Bone age (radiograph)

The bone age, hand and wrist PA is a commonly performed examination to determine the radiographic age of the patient via the assessment of growth centers Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the non-dominant hand is placed, palm down on the image receptor shoulder, elbow, a...
Article

Chest radiograph (pediatric)

The chest radiograph is one of the most commonly requested radiographic examinations in the assessment of the pediatric patient. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of distraction a...
Article

Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/ or e...
Article

Foot (weightbearing lateral)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. oblique foot radiograph) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet ...
Article

Foreign body ingestion series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body ingestion series is a set of radiographs utilized to detect and identify foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. It involves an AP and lateral radiograph of the neck, chest, and abdomen ensuring adequate coverage of the entire gastrointestinal tract 1. Patient p...
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Foreign body inhalation series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body inhalation series although not a primary port of investigation aims to detect and identify both foreign bodies or the secondary signs of inhaled foreign bodies 1. It involves a frontal chest radiograph in both the inspiration and expiratory phases and, in some cases, b...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Gymnast wrist

Gymnast wrist is a term that used to describe variety of chronic overuse injuries of the wrist in gymnasts with immature skeleton. Gymnast wrist is combined of osseous and ligamentous injury and usually manifests as a chronic Salter-Harris type I fracture of the distal radial physis on radiograp...
Article

Hip (Von Rosen view)

The Von Rosen view also known as the abduction-internal rotation view (AIR view) is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in pediatric...
Article

Neonatal abdominal radiograph (supine view)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
Article

Neonate chest (supine view)

The supine chest view of the neonatal patient is a common radiographic examination when examining preterm patients 1. Although not overall technically demanding, the radiographer should allocate time to ensure little to no repeats are required. Research surrounding the technical evaluation and ...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus radiograph is an additional projection for assessing the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for displaying free air in the abdomen and/or if the patient is unable to lie supine 1. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the lateral decubitu...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is the standard view for assessing air-fluid levels and free air in the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the AP supine and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocol...
Article

Pediatric chest (AP erect view)

The anteroposterior erect chest view is ideal in younger cooperative pediatric patients (approximately 3-7 years old; this age range is only a guide). This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The AP erect view is often chosen over the PA erect vie...
Article

Pediatric chest (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam pediatric lateral chest view is a modified lateral projection often utilized in populations under the age of 6 months old due to the inability of that patient to independently hold up their head. There is a body of research that suggest the lateral projection is not required...
Article

Pediatric chest (lateral view)

The pediatric lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessi...
Article

Pediatric chest (supine view)

In pediatric imaging, the anteroposterior supine chest x-ray is beneficial for imaging unconscious or uncooperative patients. This view is preferred in infant and neonate imaging, whilst AP erect and PA erect views are ideal for children able to cooperate in sitting or standing 1. As radiation ...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1. Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the hip joints an...
Article

Pediatric pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is a routine view for pediatric patients to examine the hip joints, proximal femora, iliac crests and pelvic ring. The complications of pelvic pathology in pediatrics can significantly affect the child's future, highlighting the importance of proper patient positioning 1. Pat...
Article

Pediatric radiography

Pediatric radiography is a subset within general radiography specializing in the radiographic imaging of the pediatric population. The general principles of radiography remain the same. However, additional consideration needs to be taken into account when determining patient-specific exposure f...
Article

Pediatric chest (PA erect view)

The posteroanterior erect chest view is often performed in older pediatric patients; when the patient is able to cooperate with sitting or standing erect. This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The PA erect view is often chosen over the AP erect...
Article

Pelvis (hip surveillance)

Hip surveillance radiographs are part of a concerted effort to monitor and enable early detection of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy or neuromuscular disorders. The radiographs consist of a modified AP pelvis in which the patient's legs are in a neutral position, with the patell...
Article

Pelvis radiograph (pediatric)

The radiography of the pelvis in the pediatric patient varies greatly from the adult examination; particularly as specialized techniques are often required to immobilize the patient. To avoid future mobility and pain complications, it is essential to treat fractures and correct developmental pat...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
Article

Sitz marker study

The Sitz marker study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation, it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radiopaque markers (plastic rings containing radiopaque materi...

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