Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

8 results found
Article

Anal cancer (staging)

The most recent version of TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows: Primary tumor (T) TX: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], anal intraepithelial neoplasia II-III (AIN II...
Article

Choi response criteria

Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could pro...
Article

Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis prop...
Article

Dukes staging system for colorectal cancer

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
Article

Necrotizing enterocolitis (staging)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general, stage I and II are managed medically whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnea, bradycardia emesis, abdominal di...
Article

Esophageal cancer (staging)

Esophageal cancer staging uses the international TNM system. The staging can depend slightly on whether the tumor is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, esophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM stagi...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is traditionally done according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system.  In 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published with some major changes; now exocrine and endocrine tumors of the...
Article

Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging strongly influences the success of and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. MRI is the modality of choice for the staging of rectal cancer, to guide surgical and non-surgical management options. MRI is used at diagnosis, following downstaging chemoradiotherapy, and...

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