Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

20 results found
Article

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (staging)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinomas are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for st...
Article

Cervical lymph node (staging)

Cervical lymph node staging refers to evaluating regional nodal metastasis from primary cancer of the head and neck. The following article reflects the 8th edition of the TNM staging system published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for staging starting January 1, 2018 1,...
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Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck (staging)

Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer involving the scalp, external ear, neck, or face including external lips. The system applies to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and numerous other skin carcinomas, notably excluding eyelid carcino...
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Differentiated thyroid cancer (staging)

Differentiated thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committ...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT and MR imaging, howeve...
Article

HPV-mediated (p16-positive) oropharyngeal cancer (staging)

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated oropharyngeal (p16+) cancer staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx that test positive for p16, an immunohistochemical proxy for HPV infection. Nodal metastases of p16+ squamous cell carcinoma without an identified primary t...
Article

Hypopharyngeal carcinoma (staging)

Hypopharyngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas originating in the hypopharynx. This system most commonly applies to squamous cell carcinomas but can also apply to rarer epithelial malignancies in the region. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by the Am...
Article

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (staging)

Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging and relies on the identification of local tumor extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.  The stag...
Article

Laryngeal carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic larynx. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial tumors are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published ...
Article

Major salivary gland cancer (staging)

Major salivary gland cancer staging refers to TNM staging of malignant tumors of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands). In contrast, tumors arising from minor salivary glands are staged according to their site of origin. The following article reflects the 8th ...
Article

Maxillary sinus carcinoma (staging)

Maxillary sinus carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial malignancies involving the maxillary sinus. Applicable histologies include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and other rarer carcinomas. The following article reflects the 8th editi...
Article

Medullary thyroid cancer (staging)

Medullary thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas have similar TNM category definitions but different prognostic stage group definitions. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published...
Article

Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (staging)

Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of mucosal melanoma involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, and, less commonly, pharynx and larynx. The system is distinct from staging of carcinomas of those sites and of cutaneous melanoma. The following ar...
Article

Nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus carcinoma (staging)

Nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial cancers involving the nasal cavity or ethmoid air cells. Applicable histologies include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and its variants, and other rarer epithelial malignancies other than mucosal melano...
Article

Nasopharyngeal cancer (staging)

Nasopharyngeal cancer staging refers to TNM staging of malignant tumors of the nasopharynx. The vast majority of applicable tumors are nasopharyngeal carcinomas, but other epithelial malignancies of the nasopharynx are included, such as minor salivary gland tumors. The following article reflects...
Article

Olfactory neuroblastoma (staging)

Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al. in 1976 1. group a: limited to the nasal cavity group b: limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses group c: extends beyond the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: ...
Article

Oral cavity carcinoma (staging)

Oral cavity carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the oral cavity. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial and minor salivary gland cancers are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by th...
Article

Oropharyngeal (p16-negative) cancer (staging)

Oropharyngeal (p16-) cancer staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas originating in the oropharynx that are not human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated. This system most commonly pertains to squamous cell carcinomas that tested negative for p16, an immunohistochemical proxy for HPV infection, o...
Article

Retinoblastoma (staging)

Retinoblastoma staging can be via a number of systems with various end-points and multiple systems are often used concurrently. Staging Reese Ellsworth classification The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with ex...
Article

Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck (staging)

Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...

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