Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

22 results found
Article

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
Article

Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome (BTHS), also referred to as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II is an extremely rare X-linked multi-system disorder that is usually diagnosed in infancy. It is characterized by: fetal cardiomyopathy: (dilated fetal cardiomyopathy (DCM) +/- endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) +/- le...
Article

Brugada syndrome

A cardiac "channelopathy" resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac sodium (Na+) channels, the Brugada syndrome is a common cardiac cause of sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts. Epidemiology Age of diagnosis ranges from 2 days to 84 years old. It is estimated to...
Article

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprised of a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenic right lung pulmona...
Article

Constrictive pericardial syndrome

Constrictive pericardial syndromes include 1: transient constrictive pericarditis a complication of acute (inflammatory) pericarditis in which the inflamed pericardium causes constrictive hemodynamics  resolution occurs within several weeks chronic constrictive pericarditis persistence of c...
Article

Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multi-system manifestations. Epidemiology According to the world health organization (WHO), the approximate worldwide inci...
Article

Dressler syndrome

Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI). Terminology Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Article

Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The etiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related d...
Article

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly where affected individuals can have profound cyanosis and cardiac failure. It is one of the commonest causes for a neonate to present with congestive cardiac failure and the 4th most frequent cardiac anomaly to mani...
Article

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterized by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw History and...
Article

Lutembacher syndrome

Lutembacher syndrome refers to the association of an atrial septal defect (ASD) with mitral stenosis.  Both the defects can be either congenital or acquired. History and etymology It is named after Rene Lutembacher 4.
Article

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease caused by a defect in the protein fibrillin 1, encoded for by the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular involvement with aortic root dilatation and dissection is the most feared complication of the disease. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is...
Article

Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1. Clinical presentation There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome: hyperinsulinemia impaired glucose tolerance dysl...
Article

Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterized by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
Article

PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: hemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Article

Polysplenia syndrome

Polysplenia syndrome, also known as left isomerism, is a type of heterotaxy syndrome where there are multiple spleens congenitally as part of left-sided isomerism. Epidemiology Polysplenia is seen predominantly in female patients. It is usually diagnosed in childhood or adulthood, later than a...
Article

Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex. It consists of: persistence of the left superior vena cava coronary sinus ostial atresia atrial septal defect It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement of the tricuspid an...
Article

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RTSC), also known as 3C (cranio-cerebello-cardiac) syndrome, is a rare entity with a variable spectrum of CNS (primarily cerebellar), craniofacial, and congenital heart defects. Clinical presentation craniofacial cleft palate ocular coloboma prominent occiput lo...
Article

Taussig-Bing anomaly

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect. History and etymology ...
Article

Thiamine deficiency

Thiamine deficiency is caused by a low level of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body, and when severe, a deficiency may manifest in adults as beriberi.There are two main forms: wet beriberi: high-output cardiac failure predominates Shoshin beriberi 3: severe acute wet form with high mortality dr...
Article

Wellens syndrome

Wellens syndrome (also referred to as LAD coronary T-wave syndrome) refers to an ECG pattern specific for critical stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery. The anomalies described occur in patients with recent anginal chest pain, and do not have chest pain when the ECG is record...
Article

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by some or all or the following features: craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies) oral abnormalities short stature (50% of cases) mild to moderate mental retardation supravalvular aortic stenosis 2 pulmonary artery stenosis 3 renal insufficienc...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.