With a T-score of - 2.7 in the left femoral neck, this patient is considered osteoporotic according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Z-score of -0.7 is within normal limits for age and gender. However, the patient is still considered osteopenic.
Note how the lumbar spine T-score is 0.3 (i.e. appears within normal limits) but is artificially elevated secondary to sclerotic degenerative endplate change. This is why the forearm measurements were also taken (which demonstrates osteopenic bone mineral density (BMD) values). Generally, the lowest value is taken as the measurement for determining normal vs osteopenia vs osteoporosis.
Fracture risk is moderate on BMD alone but high taking into account age and history of falls and fractures.