Items tagged “cardiology”

182 results found
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
Article

Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mo...
Article

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Clinical presentation Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies ...
Article

Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension ...
Article

Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV).​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
Article

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to the deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxomatous degeneration of the...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Etiology uremia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) post-radiotherapy 5 On chest radio...
Article

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection.  Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years. developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1. poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentati...
Article

Systemic hypertension

Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Clinical presentation usually asymptomatic may present with complications (see below) Accelerated (malignant) hypertension Defined as a rapid rise in blood pressure to greater than 200/120 mmHg. May occ...
Article

Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures.  It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
Case

Mitral annular calcification

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 07 May 2008
91% complete
X-rayPhoto
Article

Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign

The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side.  It is a non-...
Case

Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac rhabdomyomas

Cardiac rhabodmyo...
 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 24 May 2009
50% complete
UltrasoundCT
Article

Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterized by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Due t...
Case

Biventricular pacemaker

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 19 Jun 2009
94% complete
X-ray
Case

Multiple emboli from aortic valve

Multiple infarcts
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Natalie Yang
Published 02 Sep 2009
56% complete
CT
Article

Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
Article

Pulmonary pseudotumour

A pulmonary pseudotumour is no more than 'something' which mimics a tumor. Most frequently it is caused by a loculated pleural effusion (pleural pseudotumour) trapped in the pleural fissures. Other entities which have been described with the term pseudotumours include: round atelectasis pulmo...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the overall most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterized by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overridi...

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