Items tagged “ent”
34 results found
Chronic otomastoiditis should be considered a separate entity from acute otomastoiditis, and is defined as persistent or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid, lasting usually for a minimum of 12 weeks, and resulting in permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane. Clinical pre...
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNA) are a rare benign, but locally aggressive, vascular tumor. Epidemiology Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas occur almost exclusively in males and usually in adolescence (~15 years). They account for only 0.5% of all head and neck tumors 2, but are ...
The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a small triangular depression affecting the inner table of the temporal bone. The lines forming the triangle are: anterior: posterior border of the external acoustic meatus superior: posterior root of the zygomati...
Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
Ranulas are rare, benign, acquired, cystic lesions that occur at the floor of the mouth as sublingual or minor salivary gland retention cysts. Epidemiology For reasons that are unclear, they appear to be more common in the Maori of New Zealand and Pacific Island Polynesians 7. Clinical prese...
Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of calculi (sialoliths) inside the ducts or parenchyma of salivary glands and most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Epidemiology Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands, accounting for approximately 50% of ...
Deviated nasal septum
Deviated nasal septums are a common, usually incidental, finding seen on brain and paranasal sinus CT studies. They are commonly seen with external nose deformities. Clinical presentation Symptomatic patients can present with unilateral nasal obstruction or less commonly epistaxis, obstructiv...
Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori and are composed of densely mineralized bone usually devoid of a medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline...
Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)
This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that correspond to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: later...
A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
Adenoid and palatine tonsil on lateral radiograph
Published 20 Mar 2010
Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. It is of squamous cell origin, some types of which are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the na...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, as opposed to cutaneous SCC. They are the most common tumor of the head and neck region, and can arise from any structure with squamous cell mucosa. HNSCC is c...
Published 21 Dec 2010
Temporal bone fracture
Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of tem...
Longitudinal temporal bone fractures
Longitudinal temporal bone fractures are petrous temporal bone fractures that occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientati...
The foramen tympanicum (plural: foramina tympanica), also known as foramen of Huschke, is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a f...
Parapharyngeal abscesses are deep neck abscesses involving the parapharyngeal space. It is a serious medical condition, potentially fatal, and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Epidemiology A person of any age can develop a parapharyngeal abscess, but it is most commonly seen in childre...