Items tagged “gynecology”

16 results found
Article

Intrauterine contraceptive device

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic (...
Article

Ovarian tumors

Ovarian tumors are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumors. For specific features, refer to the subarticles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumors Surface epithelial-stromal ovarian tumors (60-70%)...
Article

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
Article

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common and clinically important problem in women of childbearing age. It is classically defined as the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and its musculature. This is distinct from adenomyosis, in which endometrial tissue is confine...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynecological e...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease. Epidemiology Risk factors Risk factors include 15: previous pelvic inflammatory disease 16 intrauterine device multiple sexual partners diabetes mellitus immunocompromise history of uterine surgery ...
Article

Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a common uterine condition of ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium, sometimes considered a spectrum of endometriosis. Although most commonly asymptomatic, it may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Pelvic imaging (i.e. ultrasound, MRI) may show characteristic findin...
Article

Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumors of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatmen...
Article

Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst

Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from hemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst. Radiographic features are variable depending on the age of the hemorrhage. They typically resolve within eight weeks.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with sudden-onset pel...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding. Both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy, with pe...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually-active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD (Intrauterine contraceptive device) related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Gynecological ultrasound set-pieces

The clinical history will nearly always lead to a short differential or the answer. Show off to the examiner that you have a structured approach to reporting and managing the patient. Structured approach uterus: size, version and shape (normal or variant which you should elaborate on and say w...
Article

Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches is usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of <3 months duration Patients also often pres...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
Case

Struma ovarii

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Milad Ghasemzadeh
Published 03 Oct 2019
90% complete
PhotoUltrasound

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