Items tagged “kidney”

333 results found
Article

Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumors with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascula...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. There has been a recent proposal in ...
Article

Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Epidemiology Horseshoe kidneys are found in approximate...
Article

Medullary sponge kidney

Medullary sponge kidney is a sporadic condition where the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts are dysplastic and dilated and in most cases develop medullary nephrocalcinosis.  Epidemiology The incidence of medullary sponge kidney is estimated at ≈1:5000. Clinical presenta...
Article

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable pediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slightl...
Article

Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis, previous known as Anderson-Carr kidney or Albright's calcinosis, refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the parenchyma of the kidney. It is divided into several types, with differing etiologies, based on the distribution: medullary nephrocalcinosis: 95% cortical nephroc...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytomas are relatively benign renal tumors. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale, most recently updated in 2018, is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for viscera...
Article

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumor). Nomenclature of such enlarged col...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
Case

Lobar nephronia

 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 15 May 2008
65% complete
CT
Article

Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumor confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: tumor confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: limi...
Article

Cystic nephroma

Cystic nephromas, previously known as multilocular cystic nephromas, are rare benign renal neoplasms classically occurring in adult females in the 4th and 5th decades. As of the 2016 WHO classification, they are considered distinct from pediatric cystic nephromas which have associated DICER1 gen...
Article

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is one of many pediatric cystic renal diseases. On imaging, it usually presents on ultrasound with enlarged echogenic kidneys with multiple small cysts. Liver involvement with coarse echotexture, biliary tract cystic changes, and portal hype...
Case

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 17 Dec 2008
86% complete
MRI
Case

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 17 Dec 2008
71% complete
CT
Article

Duplex collecting system

A duplex collecting system, or duplicated collecting system, is one of the most common congenital renal tract abnormalities. It is characterized by an incomplete fusion of upper and lower pole moieties resulting in a variety of complete or incomplete duplications of the collecting system. While ...
Case

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction

PUJ Obtruction
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Michael Sargent
Published 05 Apr 2009
58% complete
MRI
Article

Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...

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