Items tagged “oncology”

456 results found
Article

Second branchial cleft cyst

Second branchial cleft cysts are a cystic dilatation of the remnant of the 2nd branchial apparatus, and along with 2nd branchial fistulae and sinuses accounts for 95% of all branchial cleft anomalies. Clinical presentation Although a congenital abnormality, they tend to present in early adulth...
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Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastases or other adrenal...
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Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastomas are locally aggressive benign tumors that arise from the mandible, or, less commonly, from the maxilla. Usually present as a slowly but continuously growing hard painless lesion near the angle of the mandible in the 3rd to 5th decades of life, which can be severely disfiguring if ...
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Musculoskeletal angiosarcoma

Musculoskeletal angiosarcomas, (along with hemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumors that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metast...
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Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
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Bone marrow

Normal bone marrow is divided into red and yellow marrow, a distinction made on the grounds of how much fat it contains. Gross anatomy Red marrow is composed of: hematopoietic cells supporting stroma reticulum (phagocytes and undifferentiated progenitor cells) scattered fat cells a rich v...
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Brain tumors in infancy

Common brain tumors in infancy (i.e. under one year of age) are quite different from those of brain tumors in adulthood. Most are located in the supratentorial region (~65%) and they carry a poor prognosis. The frequency of these tumors varies according to studies, but the most common brain tum...
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Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al. in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographi...
Article

Breast lymphoma

Breast lymphoma refers to the involvement of the breast with lymphoma and may be primary or secondary. Epidemiology Both primary and secondary breast lymphomas are rare, accounting for ~ 0.5% (range 0.3-1.1%) of all breast malignancies. Clinical presentation Breast lymphoma may present eithe...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mo...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in youn...
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Choledochal cyst

Choledochal cysts represent congenital cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Diagnosis relies on the exclusion of other conditions (e.g. tumor, gallstone, inflammation) as a cause of biliary duct dilatation. Epidemiology Choledochal cysts are rare, with an incidence of 1:100,000-150,000. Alt...
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Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epide...
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Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
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Multiple cystic neck lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: necrotic metastatic SCC nodes: older patient, M>F papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases: usually a younger patient, F>M ...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
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Ependymoma

Ependymomas represent a relatively broad group of glial tumors most often arising from the lining the ventricles of the brain or the central canal of the spinal cord. They account for ~5% of all neuroepithelial neoplasms, ~10% of all pediatric brain tumors and up to 33% of brain tumors occurring...
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Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
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Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
Article

Intraventricular meningioma

Intraventricular meningiomas are rare intracranial tumors that represent an uncommon subtype of the more classical extra-axial meningioma and represent between 0.5 and 2% of all meningiomas. Despite its rarity, they represent one of the commonest adult intraventricular neoplasms 4. Epidemiology...

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