Items tagged “ref”
30 results found
Pelvic peritoneal space
The pelvic peritoneal space is the inferior reflection of the peritoneum over the fundus of the urinary bladder and the front of the rectum at the junction of its middle and lower thirds. In females, the reflection is also over the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus and the upper poste...
Swan neck deformity (fingers)
Swan neck deformity is a musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis presenting in a digit, with the combination of: hyperextension of a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion of a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint Pathology The swan neck deformity characterized by hyperexte...
Traumatic aortic injury in the exam
Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with a traumatic aortic injury. Description...
Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
Gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 17 Jun 2013
Carcinoma of the cervix
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 21 Jun 2013
The retrotracheal space (or Raider triangle) is a radiolucent mediastinal space best seen on lateral chest x-rays. It is normally triangular in shape but can vary greatly in size and shape depending on the patient's body habitus and lung volume 1. Boundaries anterior: posterior tracheal stripe...
Onion bulb formation
Onion bulb formation is a histopathologic finding in hypertrophic neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Pathology Onion bulb formations are concentric layers of Schwann cell processes and collagen surrounding axon...
Aberrant right subclavian artery
Published 13 Aug 2016
Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex. It consists of: persistence of the left superior vena cava coronary sinus ostial atresia atrial septal defect It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement of the tricuspid an...
Superior vena cava obstruction (grading)
SVC obstruction can cause SVC syndrome which is the most common condition affecting this vessel. It can be secondary to extrinsic compression or intraluminal thrombosis/stenosis. Collateral pathways, with the azygos vein being the most important collateral vessel, form in response to severe narr...
Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of scrotum
Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the scrotum is a rare, well-defined, slow growing mesenchymal extratesticular nonepididymal tumor rarely seen in the perineum or scrotum of older male patients. A similar tumor can occur in females in the vulval region. Epidemiology In males, they are seen ...
Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus
Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur at canalicular, lacrimal saccular, or nasolacrimal ductal (post-saccular) levels. Causes of obstruction Congenital obstruction persistence of the m...
Anterior lacrimal crest
The anterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the frontal process of the maxilla continuous with the orbital rim which creates the lateral margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. The medial palpebral ligament is attached to anterior lacrimal crest. Immediately anterior to the anterior lacrimal ...
Posterior lacrimal crest
The posterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the lacrimal bone which creates the medial margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. See also anterior lacrimal crest
Lacrimal sac fossa
The lacrimal sac fossa is an excavated fossa in the inferior aspect of the anteromedial orbital wall which contains the lacrimal sac. It is bounded by the anterior and posterior lacrimal crests of the maxillary and lacrimal bones, respectively. In adults, it measures approximately 8-9 mm anterop...
The maxillary line is a mucosal projection along the lateral nasal wall corresponding to lacrimomaxillary suture externally. The midportion of the line is called "M point". During endoscopic sinus and orbital procedures the maxillary line and M-point are very important and useful landmarks in pa...
The physes (singular: physis) or growth plates are found in bones that undergo endochondral ossification. Radiographic features The physis appears as a radiolucent line in skeletally-immature patients located between the metaphysis and epiphysis. It contains zones of mesenchymal cells in va...
Double contour cartilage line
Double contour cartilage line is a sign in ultrasonography of the gout arthropathy which is characterized by an echogenic line on the outer surface of the joint cartilage parallel to the subchondral bone secondary to deposition of monosodium urate crystals on the surface of hyaline articular car...
Torus tubarius (plural: tori tubarii) or cushion of the auditory canal is a mucosal elevation in the lateral aspect of the nasopharynx, formed by the underlying pharyngeal end of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. The opening of the Eustachian tube is anterior to the torus tobariu...