Items tagged “rg_39_1_edit”

29 results found
Article

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are focal dilatations of the abdominal aorta measuring 50% greater than the proximal normal segment, or >3 cm in maximum diameter. Epidemiology represent the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world prevalence increases with age ~10% patients old...
Article

Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis (plural: pancreatitides) is an acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made by fulfilling two of the following three criteria 8: acute onset of persistent, severe epigastric pain (i.e. pain co...
Article

Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastases or other adrenal...
Article

Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumors with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascula...
Article

Schmorl nodes

Schmorl nodes, also referred as intravertebral disc herniations, refer to protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent vertebra. The protrusions may contact the marrow of the vertebra, leading to inflammation. Epidemiology Qu...
Article

Spondylodiskitis

Spondylodiskitis, also referred to as diskitis-osteomyelitis, is characterized by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Epidemiology Spondylodiskitis has a bimodal age distribution, which many authors consider essentially as separate entities: pediatric older po...
Article

Leukodystrophies

The leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that primarily affect the white matter of the central nervous system. They are particularly encountered in childhood as many are genetically determined and represent abnormalities in white matter metabolism. A number of leukodystrophies...
Article

Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal/kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.  See main ar...
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis

Diffuse hepatic steatosis, also known as fatty liver, is a common imaging finding and can lead to difficulties assessing the liver appearances, especially when associated with focal fatty sparing. Terminology The term 'fatty infiltration of the liver' is often erroneously used to describe live...
Article

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disease characterized by an abnormal intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant-derived lipoproteinaceous material. On imaging, PAP is classically associated with the lung crazy paving pattern on CT, although it is a rare cause of this non-specific ...
Article

Tuberculous spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis, also known as Pott disease, refers to vertebral body osteomyelitis and intervertebral diskitis from tuberculosis (TB). The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis, and commonly related symptoms are back pain and lower limb weakness/paraplegia....
Article

Krabbe disease

Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting in damage to cells involved in myelin turn over. It thus affects both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (manifesting as a leukodystrophy).  Epidemiolog...
Article

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder and one of the more common leukodystrophies in both children and adults. It is characterized by a lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination typically of ...
Article

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the most common hereditary (autosomal recessive) leukodystrophy and is one of the lysosomal storage disorders. It has characteristic imaging features including peri-atrial and to a lesser extent frontal horns leukodystrophy as well as periventricular periven...
Article

Myeloid sarcoma

Myeloid sarcomas, also called granulocytic sarcomas, chloromas, or extramedullary myeloid tumors, are rare extramedullary masses comprised of myeloid precursor cells. Most commonly, these tumors happen in association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they may also occur with other myeloprol...
Article

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare benign cause of acute or subacute small bowel obstruction. It is characterized by total or partial encasement of the small bowel within a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Terminology The condition was originally termed abdominal cocoon. The conditio...
Article

Thymic hyperplasia

Thymic hyperplasia is a disorder whereby there is hyperplasia of the thymus gland.  Pathology Thymus hyperplasia can be subdivided into two forms:  true thymic hyperplasia lymphoid thymic hyperplasia Both true thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia manifest as diffuse symmetric enlarge...
Article

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the proliferation of mostly mature but abnormal leukocytes.  Epidemiology CLL is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38...
Article

Black boundary artifact

Black boundary artifact, also known as India ink artifact or type 2 chemical shift artifact, is an artificially-created black line located at fat-water interfaces such as those between muscle and fat. This results in a sharp delineation of the muscle-fat boundary lending the image an appearance ...
Article

Pulmonary leukemic infiltratation

Pulmonary leukemic infiltrations correspond to extravascular collections of leukemic cells in the lung parenchyma. On imaging, although having a broad and nonspecific pattern of presentation, is commonly seen as thickening of the bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa. Epidemiology The...

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