Items tagged “rg_39_2_edit”

29 results found
Article

Spinal schwannoma

Spinal schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors within the spinal canal, typically arising from spinal nerve roots. They are one of the two most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumors, representing 15-50% of such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal schwannomas. For a ...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is one of the three non-paired major visceral arteries in the abdominal cavity arising from the abdominal aorta and supplying the midgut. Gross anatomy Origin Single vessel arising anteriorly from the abdominal aorta at the level of L1, usually just below ...
Article

Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, which can then result in acute mesenteric ischemia, can be a life-threatening event related to the artery supplying the majority of the small bowel and right side of the colon.  Epidemiology  An acute occlusion is an uncommon event that typical...
Article

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, although sharing many of the features of generic colorectal carcinoma (CRC), has some features that make it unique. These are predominantly related to its anatomical location which has implications in both preoperative imaging assessment and surgical technique. Epidemiology Rect...
Article

Gallbladder polyp

Gallbladder polyps are elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. The vast majority are benign, but malignant forms are seen. On imaging, although they may be detected by CT or MRI, they are usually best characterized on ultrasound as a non-shadowing and immobile polypoid ingro...
Article

Radiation-induced lung disease

Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is a frequent complication of radiotherapy to the chest for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies and can have a variety of appearances, especially depending on when the patient is imaged. Acute and late phases are described, corresponding to radiation pn...
Article

Radiation pneumonitis

Radiation pneumonitis is the acute manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with the changes seen in the late phase. Please refer to the article on radiation-induced l...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with the changes seen in the acute phase. Please refer to the article on radi...
Article

Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool developed by American College of Radiology that provides a widely accepted lexicon and reporting schema for imaging of the breast. It applies to mammography, ultrasound, and MRI. This article refle...
Article

Gallbladder carcinoma

Gallbladder carcinoma is a term referring to primary epithelial malignancies arising from the gallbladder, in which the great majority (90%) are adenocarcinomas and the remainder are squamous cell carcinomas. They are more prevalent in elderly women and, in most cases, are only symptomatic when ...
Article

Breast density

Breast density refers to the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast relative to fat. It can significantly vary between individuals and within individuals over a lifetime. Classification There are four descriptors for breast density on mammography in the 5th edition of BI-RADS 1-2: a: the...
Article

Spinal meningioma

Meningiomas arising from the coverings of the spinal cord are one of the two most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumors, representing 25-30% of all such tumors 2.  This article specifically relates to spinal meningiomas. For a discussion on intracranial meningiomas and a general discus...
Article

Intradural extramedullary spinal tumors

Intradural extramedullary neoplasms are located outside the spinal cord but within the dural sheath.  Epidemiology The majority (70-80%) of spinal canal tumors are intradural extramedullary 1. Clinical presentation Patients present with signs and symptoms of spinal cord or nerve root compres...
Article

Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumor type....
Article

Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumors of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina. They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochromoc...
Article

Myxopapillary ependymoma

Myxopapillary ependymomas are a variant type of ependymoma that occurs predominantly in the filum terminale and/or conus medullaris. They represent 13% of all spinal ependymomas and are the most common tumors of the cauda equina region. Epidemiology They tend to have an earlier clinical presen...
Article

Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery dissection

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is an uncommon type of arterial dissection. It can either on its own (spontaneous isolated) or occur as part of an extension of an aortic dissection (combined), with the latter being more common. However, spontaneous isolated SMA dissection is consider...
Article

Gallbladder sludge

Gallbladder sludge, also known as biliary sand, biliary sediment, or thick bile, is a mixture of particulate matter and bile, normally seen as a liquid-liquid level in the gallbladder on ultrasound, corresponding to the precipitate of bile solutes.  Pathology These precipitates consist of chol...
Article

Gallbladder inflammatory polyps

Gallbladder inflammatory polyps are a benign subtype of gallbladder polyps, representing ~10% of all polyps. They appear as a result of chronic inflammation (chronic cholecystitis).  For further details, please refer to the parental article on gallbladder polyps.  Pathology Thought to develop...

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