Items tagged “rg_39_2_new”

20 results found
Article

Breast mass

Breast masses are three-dimensional space-occupying lesions in the breasts. This article provides an overview of the standard BI-RADS terminology used to describe breast masses in radiology reports and other reporting suggestions. Radiographic features Breast masses are described differently b...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery aneurysm

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms are the third most common type of visceral artery aneurysm, accounting for ~5% of visceral artery aneurysms.  Clinical presentation SMA aneurysms are most commonly detected incidentally on imaging for other indications, however, ~45% (range 38-50%) pr...
Article

Conventional radiation therapy

Conventional (2D) radiation therapy refers to the old techniques of radiation therapy where treatments would be planned by defining a limited number of beams with the boundaries delineated on orthogonal x-rays of the patient. It has been largely replaced by other highly conformal external beam r...
Article

3D conformal radiation therapy

3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is a radiation therapy technique that involves CT planning where the volume to be treated is defined on a 3D data set. Therefore, organs at risk can also be delineated with the aim of shielding these and reducing treatment side effects. Radiotherapy planni...
Article

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a type of conformal radiation therapy where not only the shape but also the intensity profile (i.e. fluence) of each beam is varied, therefore, superior to the 3D-CRT.  Early implementations involved building up a fluence profile by summing smalle...
Article

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was developed based on patient immobilization techniques, such as headframes. 'Stereotactic' refers to the high precision of the treatment system which allows smaller margins and higher doses per treatment 1.  SRS involves a smaller number of treatments (typically...
Article

Proton therapy

Proton therapy, also referred to as proton-beam therapy, is the most common type of particle therapy. It represents one of the highly conformal radiation therapy techniques that, differing from the other external-beam photon therapies, uses the proton particle properties to minimize the toxic ef...
Article

Radiation-induced esophagitis

Radiation-induced esophagitis is a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the esophagus resulting in both acute or chronic complications:  acute esophagitis: usually 2 to 4 weeks after radiotherapy start 1 extending within ≤ 3 months after completion of the radiotherapy 3 chronic esophagiti...
Article

Radiation-induced liver disease

Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), also referred to as radiation hepatitis, represents the toxic effect of radiation therapy on normal hepatocytes.   This article will discuss liver toxicity appearances after external beam radiotherapy techniques. Please refer to the dedicated article on s...
Article

Radiation-induced breast changes

Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer).  Radiographic features The radiation-induced breast changes may be seen in either dedicated b...
Article

Complications of thoracic radiation therapy

Complications of thoracic radiation therapy have significantly reduced since conventional radiotherapy has been largely replaced by modern conformational techniques. Even though, given the usually high radiation doses required for most thoracic cancers, some degree of collateral effects will be ...
Article

Radiation-induced breast cancer

Radiation-induced breast cancers are a potential long-term complication of radiotherapy to the chest, in particular, in those patients receiving irradiation for breast cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma.  Besides breast cancer, sarcomas (breast angiosarcoma or osteosarcomas arising from the irradiated ...
Article

Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia

Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) is considered to be a precursor lesion of cholangiocarcinoma, but the frequency at which this transition occurs is unknown.  Terminology Before 2005, biliary atypia or biliary dysplasia were terms usually employed to refer to BilIN 5.  Epidemiology T...
Article

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a pre-invasive biliary tree neoplasm considered to be a precursor of cholangiocarcinoma.  Terminology Biliary papillary adenoma and noninvasive papillary carcinoma of the biliary tract were terms used to refer to localized low-grade and...
Article

Intraductal neoplasms of the bile ducts

Intraductal neoplasms of the bile ducts are basically divided in those lesions that are a precursor to adenocarcinoma of the bile ducts, also referred to as preinvasive lesions, and the invasive tumors, which are made basically by cholangiocarcinomas of intraductal growing type. preinvasive  b...
Article

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile ducts

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the bile ducts are rare intraluminal mass forming pre-invasive biliary neoplasms with no mucin production.  Epidemiology ITPNs of the bile ducts are rare tumors of unknown incidence, found more frequently in women at their 60s 1,2.  Pathology These tu...
Article

Gallbladder cholesterol polyps

Gallbladder cholesterol polyps are the most common subtype of gallbladder polyps, representing more than 50% of all polyps. They are frequently seen in middle-aged women and are benign lesions, with no malignant potential.  For further details, please refer to the parental article on gallbladde...
Article

Gallbladder adenoma

Gallbladder adenomas are uncommon gallbladder polyps that, although benign, have a premalignant behavior.  Terminology As the distinction of adenomas and intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasms (ICPN) is not entirely clear, with important overlap between both entities, some authors have p...
Article

Intracholecystic papillary neoplasm

Intracholecystic papillary neoplasms (ICPN), also referred to as intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasms, are rare recently described pre-invasive neoplasms of the gallbladder. On imaging, these lesions resemble adenomas of the gallbladder or have features suspicious for gallbladder carcin...
Article

Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the gallbladder

Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the gallbladder are extremely rare epithelial cystic tumors formed by mucin-producing cells. They are histologically similar to the other mucinous cystic tumors found elsewhere in the body. For the lesions involving the bile ducts, please refer to: biliary cystaden...

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