Items tagged “spine”

740 results found
Article

Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...
Article

Bamboo spine (ankylosing spondylitis)

Bamboo spine is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis that occurs as a result of vertebral body fusion by marginal syndesmophytes. It is often accompanied by fusion of the posterior vertebral elements as well.  A bamboo spine typically involves the thoracolumbar and/or lumbosacr...
Article

Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Pathology The cervical spine is susceptible to injury because it is highly mobile with relatively small vertebral bodies and supports the head which is both heavy and...
Article

Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
Article

Dagger sign (spine)

The dagger sign is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis as a single central radiodense line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments secondary to enthesitis.
Article

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space resulting in compression of the thecal sac. In severe cases, compression may be symptomatic. The lumbar region is most frequently affected. Epidemiology The demographics of affected individuals ref...
Article

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Epidemiology These injuries account for 4-7% of all cervical spine fractures and up to 22% of ...
Article

Intervertebral disc calcification

Intervertebral disc calcification is a non-specific finding seen in numerous conditions. Epidemiology It may be observed in pediatric 5 as well as adult populations. Pathology Etiology degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% of routine abdominal radiographs in adults post...
Article

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of the atlas. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical m...
Article

Low endplate signal on T1

Several conditions may give vertebral endplate T1 low signal on MRI. They include:   ankylosing spondylitis vertebral metastases disc infection haemodialysis
Article

Os odontoideum

Os odontoideum (plural: ossa odontoidea) is an anatomic variant of the odontoid process of C2 and needs to be differentiated from persistent ossiculum terminale and from a type 2 odontoid fracture. It can be associated with atlantoaxial instability.  Although it was originally thought to be a c...
Article

Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Red Toucans Don't Come Back  Mnemonic Whe...
Article

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  Terminology By definition, scoliosis is any la...
Article

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
Article

Toothpaste sign

The toothpaste sign in spinal imaging represents an extrusion of an intervertebral disc into the epidural space. It is called after the shape of extruded material relatively to the parent disc in a sagittal plane.
Article

Vertebral body squaring (differential)

Vertebral body squaring refers to the loss of normal concavity of the anterior border. It is seen in a variety of conditions including:  Differential diagnosis Ankylosing spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is the most common cause of vertebral body squaring. It usually involves multiple level...
Case

L5/S1 disc extrusion

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 08 May 2008
70% complete
MRI
Case

Perineural cyst around S1 nerve root

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 14 May 2008
77% complete
MRI
Case

Sickle cell spine

Lateral spine xra...
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 22 May 2008
66% complete
X-ray
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...

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