Items tagged “upper limb”

17 results found
Article

Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Red Toucans Don't Come Back  Mnemonic Whe...
Article

Rotator cuff

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons, important in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint: supraspinatus: abduction infraspinatus: external rotation teres minor: external rotation subscapularis: internal rotation Other structures that stabilize the glenohumeral joint in...
Article

Quadrangular space

The quadrangular space (or quadrilateral space) is one of three spaces located in the posterior compartment of the arm, along with the lateral triangular space and medial triangular space. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: lateral border of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle lateral:...
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Ossification centers of the wrist

Ossification of the wrist can be divided into two components: carpal bone ossification centers distal radial and ulna ossification centers Ossification of the carpal bones Ossification of the carpal bones occurs in a predictable sequence, starting with the capitate and ending with the pisifo...
Article

Anconeus epitrochlearis

The anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle or epitrochleoanconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscl...
Article

Upper extremity dislocations

Upper extremity dislocations are relatively common on account of the great range of motion the upper limb is capable of (a general principle is that the greater the range of motion of a joint, the more prone it is to dislocation). In many instances dislocations are associated with fractures eith...
Article

Anterior humeral line

The anterior humeral line is key to demonstrating normal elbow alignment and should be used whenever reading a pediatric elbow radiograph to exclude a subtle supracondylar fracture. The rule A line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle third of the capitell...
Article

Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff is: SITS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis Recalling this order also helps remember the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle and inferior facets of the greater tuber...
Article

Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the main supply of arterial blood to the arm, forearm and hand.  Summary origin: continuation of the axillary artery distal to teres major location: medial upper arm supply: muscles of the arm, forearm and hand main branches: profunda brachii terminal branches: radia...
Article

Lateral triangular space

The lateral triangular space, also called the triangular interval or lower triangular space 1 or triceps hiatus, is a space connecting the axilla to the posterior compartment of the arm. It should not be confused with the similarly named medial (upper) triangular space. Gross anatomy It is a d...
Article

Abductor pollicis longus

The abductor pollicis longus (APL) is a muscle found in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm. As it descends, it becomes superficial and passes under the extensor retinaculum and through the 1st extensor compartment of the wrist before attaching distally. It is one of the e...
Article

Scapula

The scapula (plural: scapulae) is a roughly triangular shaped bone of the pectoral girdle with several articulations connecting to the humerus and clavicle.  Gross anatomy Osteology The main part of the scapula, the body, consists of a somewhat triangular-shaped flat blade, with an inferiorly...
Article

Carpal tunnel

The carpal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal that acts as a passageway from the forearm to the anterior hand. It is found in the anterior wrist. Gross anatomy Boundaries superficial border (roof): flexor retinaculum deep border (floor): carpal groove (formed by palmar aspect of carpal bones) ...
Article

Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

The abductor pollicis brevis muscle is a thin subcutaneous muscle located laterally in the thenar eminence of the hand, and is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. Summary origin: mainly from the flexor retinaculum few fibers originate from the tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium and ten...
Article

Opponens pollicis muscle

The opponens pollicis muscle is one of the muscles of the thenar eminence, deep to abductor pollicis brevis, and is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The three muscles that constitute the thenar eminence muscle group are abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis and opponens polli...
Article

Guyon's canal

Guyon’s canal is a fibro-osseous tunnel extending from the transverse carpal ligament at the proximal aspect of the pisiform to the origin of the hypothenar muscles at the hook of hamate. It is approximately 4 cm in length. Gross anatomy Boundaries roof: palmar carpal ligament, palmaris brevi...
Article

Posterior humeral circumflex artery

The posterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm 1 location: proximal arm supply: glenohumeral joint, teres major and minor, and deltoid 1 main ...

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