Items tagged “vascular”

66 results found
Article

String sign (artery)

The angiographic string sign, also known as the carotid string sign, refers to the thin string of intravenous contrast material distal to a stenotic focus in the internal carotid artery (ICA).  Pathology A thin stripe of flow is caused by decreased pressure and flow distal to the stenosis, whi...
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Aorta

The aorta, the great artery, is the largest artery of the human body and carries oxygenated blood ejected from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation. It is divided into: thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal aorta It has branches from each section a...
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Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
Article

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome, also known as hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO), refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete obstruction of the hepatic veins. It is characterized on imaging by ascites, caudate hypertrophy, peripheral atrophy, and prominent collater...
Article

Capillary hemangioma of the orbit

Capillary hemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry hemangiomas, on account of its coloring, or orbital infantile hemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumors of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous hemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical presen...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different etiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as such...
Article

Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognized as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Article

Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
Article

Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
Article

Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumors, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumors are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically the...
Article

Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal hemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumors, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumors are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically the...
Article

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalen...
Article

High riding jugular bulb

A high riding jugular bulb indicates the dome (roof) of the jugular bulb extends more superiorly in the petrous temporal bone than is typical. The transverse level above which a jugular bulb is considered high riding has been variably defined as the following 1,6,8: floor of the internal acoust...
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Aortoiliac occlusive disease

Aortoiliac occlusive disease refers to complete occlusion of the aorta distal to the renal arteries. Terminology When the clinical triad of impotence, pelvis and thigh claudication, and absence of the femoral pulses are present, it may also be called Leriche syndrome, which usually affects you...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to the deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxomatous degeneration of the...
Article

Mixed vascular malformation

A mixed vascular malformation is a relatively common congenital cerebral vascular malformation, most frequently composed of a developmental venous anomaly and a cavernous malformation. As developmental venous anomalies seldom bleed, the risk of a mixed vascular malformation is determined by the ...
Article

Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries.  Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, ...
Article

PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: hemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Etiology uremia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) post-radiotherapy 5 On chest radio...

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