What is the risk for ectopic insertion of the distal ureter into the bladder in a horseshoe kidney?
No greater than the normal population.
How can stones in a horseshoe kidney be treated?
Similarly to stone disease in normal kidneys. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used, with retrograde intrarenal surgery with flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) considered for non-responders. Open surgery is not usually necessary.
Horseshoe kidney with a 6 mm stone at the right ureterovesicular junction (UVJ). There is dilatation of the upstream collection system with stranding and a small amount of free fluid anterior to the right renal pelvis and proximal ureter, compatible with rupture and urine leak into the peritoneal space.
Left-sided collecting system is not dilated.
The appendix is normal.