Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

554 results found
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Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion cavernous sinus portion orbital portion Gross anat...
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Aberrant arachnoid granulations

Aberrant arachnoid granulations are arachnoid granulations that penetrated the dura but failed to migrate normally in the venous sinus. They are most often located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Occasionally, they are seen in the posterior temporal bone wall. Clinical presentation A...
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Aberrant internal carotid artery

Aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the internal carotid artery 5. Gross anatomy There is consequent enlargement of the usually sma...
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Accessory middle cerebral artery

The accessory middle cerebral artery is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). It is different from a duplicated middle cerebral artery, in which the duplicated vessel originates also from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (...
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AICA-PICA dominance

AICA-PICA dominance refers to the principle that the cerebellar vascular territory supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery have a reciprocal arrangement. That is the size of the AICA and the subsequent territory it supplies is inversely propor...
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Ambient cistern

The ambient cistern is part of the subarachnoid cisterns, filled with CSF. Gross anatomy The ambient cistern is a thin, sheet-like extension of the quadrigeminal cistern that extends laterally surrounding around the midbrain and posterior to the thalami. It acts as the connection between the q...
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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae) is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The amygdala is a complex gray matter structure located anterior and superior to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and head of the hippocampus. ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other part being the supramarginal gyrus. It plays a part in language and number processing, memory and reasoning 1. Gross anatomy Relations It lies as a horseshoe...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously known as the precingulate, is a region of the brain surrounding the anterior corpus callosum. It is involved in the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. Summary location: it is located superior to the anterior corpus callosum, more specifical...
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Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (AC) is a transversely oriented commissural white matter tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres along the midline. It is a very important anatomical landmark that connects different parts of the limbic system on both sides and plays a role in the interhemispheri...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibers decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibers form the much smaller anterio...
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Anterior epitympanic recess

The anterior epitympanic recess, also known as the supratubal recess, is a small discrete space in the epitympanum anterior to the malleus. It is separated from the epitympanum proper by the anterior attic bony plate, also known as the cog, which has its orientation in the coronal anatomical pla...
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Anterior ethmoidal foramen

The anterior ethmoid foramen is a small opening in the ethmoid bone. It is the anatomical border of anterior and posterior ethmoid air cells. It transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery, vein and nerve. The anterior ethmoid foramen is situated 25 mm away from the lacrimal crest, 12 mm anterior t...
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Anterior ethmoidal nerve

The anterior ethmoidal nerve is an extraconal branch of the nasociliary nerve, a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Some authors describe it as either the terminal branch or a direct continuation of the nasociliary nerve.  It branches off distal to the infratrochlear nerv...
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Anterior fontanelle

The anterior or frontal fontanelle (or fontanel) is the diamond-shaped soft membranous gap at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 18-24 months after birth, after which it is known as the bregma. The fontanelle normally measures between 0.6-3.6 cm (me...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Anterior perforated substance

The anterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata anterior, is an area in the basal forebrain that plays an important role with regards to the blood supply of deep grey matter structures of the brain. Gross anatomy Located within the basal forebrain, the anterior perforated substance...
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Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is by far the largest part of the pituitary gland, and is responsible for synthesis and release of most pituitary hormones (with the exception of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which are released by the posterior pituitary). It consists of 3 ...
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Anterior pontine membrane

The anterior pontine membrane is an arachnoid membrane located anteriorly in the posterior fossa to the side of the basilar artery, separating the prepontine cistern (medially) form the cerebellopontine cistern (laterally) 1. 
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Anterior spinal commissure

The anterior spinal commissure connects the left and right sides of the spinal cord anteriorly. It is located between the posterior-most extent of the anterior median fissure anteriorly and the ventral grey matter commissure posteriorly 1.  It is composed of anterior and lateral spinothalamic t...
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Anterior temporal artery

The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri.  Variant anatomy The temporopolar arter...
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Arachnoid granulation

Arachnoid granulations, also known as Pacchionian granulations, are projections of the arachnoid membrane (villi) into the dural sinuses that allow CSF to pass from the subarachnoid space into the venous system. Epidemiology They increase in size and number with age and are seen in approximate...
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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater forms the middle layer of the meninges and together with the pia mater is sometimes referred to as the leptomeninges.  Gross anatomy The arachnoid mater is a membrane that comes into direct contact with the dura mater and is separated from the pia mater by a CSF-filled spac...
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Arachnoid membranes

Arachnoid membranes represent sheet-like connective tissue that crosses the subarachnoid space, from the pia mater to the arachnoid mater, dividing the subarachnoid space into cisterns. A number of these membranes are named 1: Liliequist membrane: separates the chiasmatic cistern and interpedun...
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Area postrema

The area postrema, also known as the chemoreceptor trigger zone is one of the so-called circumventricular organs located on the dorsal inferior surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle. The specialized ependymal cells in the area postrema detect toxins in the b...
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Arnold's nerve

Arnold's nerve is the auricular branch, also known as the mastoid branch, of the vagus nerve (CN X). Origin and course Arnold's nerve originates from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve and also has a small contribution from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It ascends ...
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Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries. common carotid artery carotid body carotid bifurcation internal carotid artery (segments) caroticotympanic artery persistent stapedial artery ophthalmic artery supraorbital artery lacrimal arte...
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Arterial vasocorona

The arterial vasocorona is part of the spinal cord blood supply and is formed by pial anastomoses between the anterior and posterior spinal arteries on the surface of the spinal cord. It encircles the cord and supplies the peripheral lateral aspect of the spinal cord. 
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Artery of Adamkiewicz

The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord. Gross anatomy Origin The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
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Artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari

The artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari, also known as medial or marginal tentorial artery (of Bernasconi–Cassinari), commonly arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. Gross anatomy The artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari is ~2 cm long and is an important branch of the m...
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Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterized by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. From the original classification of arterial patterns at the origin of the paramedian art...
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Astrocytes

Astrocytes are cells of the central nervous system which act as both physical and physiological support for the neurons that are embedded between them. They are particularly abundant in the grey matter, where they are the most abundant glial cells 1. They are highly branched and contribute to t...
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Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
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Asymmetric fatty bone marrow of the petrous apex

Asymmetric pneumatization of petrous apex is a frequent normal anatomic variant resulting in asymmetric fatty bone marrow within the petrous apex. It is a common incidental finding on brain and skull base MRI. Clinical presentation Asymptomatic. Pathology Asymmetric pneumatization of the pet...
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Asymmetry of the lateral ventricles

The lateral ventricles occasionally show small side to side differences in size on CT or MRI of the brain. This asymmetry of the lateral ventricles (ALV) is an anatomic variant in most cases. Epidemiology The prevalence of asymmetry in lateral ventricle size in those without evidence of underl...
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Azygos anterior cerebral artery

An azygos anterior cerebral artery is an uncommon to rare variant of the circle of Willis where the two A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) join to form a single trunk. As a result, there is no anterior communicating artery. This organization is similar to that seen in lower primat...
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Band of Giacomini

The band of Giacomini, also known as the tail of the dentate gyrus is the anteromedial continuation of the dentate gyrus, which in turn is part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus, subicular complex and entorhinal cortex. It is an important anatomical landmark of the inferio...
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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia are a group of grey matter nuclei in the deep aspects of the brain that is interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalami and brainstem. In a strict anatomical sense, it contains three paired nuclei that together comprise the corpus striatum: caudate nucleus lentiform nucl...
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Basal nucleus of Meynert

The basal nucleus of Meynert, also known as the nucleus basalis of Meynert, is formed by a group of cells that lies in the substantia innominata. It is rich in acetylcholine and its degeneration has been correlated to Alzheimer disease. It lies anterior to the anterior commissure. 
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Basal vein of Rosenthal

The basal veins, also known as the veins of Rosenthal, are paired, paramedian veins which originate on the medial surface of the temporal lobe and run posteriorly and medially. It passes lateral to the midbrain through the ambient cistern to drain into the vein of Galen with the internal cerebra...
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Base of the skull

The base of the skull (or skull base) forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from the structures of the neck and face. Gross anatomy The base of the skull is a bony diaphragm composed of a number of bones - from anterior to posterior: frontal bone ethmoid bone sphenoi...
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Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery, thought to occur due to failed fusion of plexiform primitive longitudinal neural arteries 4. Its reported prevalence is h...
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Basilar venous plexus

The basilar venous plexus lies between the endosteal and visceral layers of the dura on the inner surface of the clivus. It connects the: inferior petrosal sinuses cavernous sinuses intercavernous sinuses superior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus marginal sinus (around the...
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Basion

The basion is the median (midline) point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament attaches to it. It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement. Clinical importance Various lines and measurements using the ...
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Basis pontis

The basis pontis, or basilar/basal part of the pons, refers to the ventral portion of the pons, which contains white matter fibers of the corticospinal tract. Related pathology lacunar infarct in this region may result in pure motor hemiparesis, ataxic hemiparesis, or dysarthria-clumsy hand sy...
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Betz cells

Betz cells are pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex. They are some of the largest in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100 µm in diameter and send their axons down the corticospinal tracts to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.  ...
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Bifid postcentral gyrus sign

The bifid postcentral gyrus sign, also known as the pars deflection sign, is a landmark useful for identifying the central sulcus on cross-sectional imaging. The medial aspect of the postcentral gyrus splits in two before meeting the interhemispheric fissure. The two legs straddle the pars marg...
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Bill bar

Bill bar is a bony anatomical landmark that divides the superior compartment of the internal acoustic meatus into an anterior and posterior compartment. Anterior to Bill bar, in the anterior superior quadrant, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and nervus intermedius, and posterior to it, in the post...
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Bladder neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy of the bladder is complex, described here is a summary of the co-ordination of micturition. The bladder acts as a reservoir normally storing 400-500 mL of urine under low pressure (<15 cmH2O) before voluntary voiding can occur at a socially-convenient time. Bladder filling and empt...
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Blood-brain barrier

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) forms a physical resistance to the passage of lipophobic substances from cerebral capillaries into the brain and is a key reason why there is no CSF enhancement following intravenous contrast media in CT and MR imaging. Gross anatomy The BBB is formed by a combina...
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Blood supply of the meninges

The blood supply of the meninges generally concerns the blood supply of the outer layer of dura mater rather than the inner layer of dura mater, arachnoid or pia mater which do not require a large blood supply. There are several arteries that supply the dura in the anterior, middle, and posterio...
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Bochdalek's flower basket

Bochdalek's flower basket is the eponymous name for the incidental finding of protrusion of the choroid plexus through the foramina of Luschka. This is a relatively common finding. It is an important normal variant to recognize as the presence of protruding calcified choroid tissue in the fourt...
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Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al. described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (1...
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Bracket sign (pars marginalis)

The bracket sign of the pars marginalis, also known as the pars bracket sign, refers to the appearances of the superior most extent of the pars marginalis of the cingulate sulcus on axial imaging. It forms two roughly symmetric brackets, open anteriorly. The next sulcus anteriorly is the central...
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Brain

The brain is the vital neurological organ composed of: cerebrum diencephalon brainstem midbrain pons medulla cerebellum The brain is housed in the skull and bathed in cerebrospinal fluid. It is continuous with the cervical spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. 
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Brain development

Brain development occurs from the three vesicles of the embryo's neural tube. prosencephalon/forebrain mesencephalon/midbrain rhombencephalon/hindbrain By approximately 4.5 to 5 menstrual weeks, the primitive neural plate has developed. The neural plate then divides into the neural crest and...
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Brainstem

The brainstem is the most caudal part of the brain. It adjoins, is structurally continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the: midbrain (mesencephalon) pons (part of the metencephalon) medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to t...
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Brainstem nuclei

The brainstem nuclei are the nuclei in the brainstem. These include: cranial nerve nuclei red nucleus substantia nigra
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Broca's area

Broca's area (Brodmann area 44) is an area of the lateral frontal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the production of speech. Gross anatomy Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis and pars triangularis) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior...
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Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas are a system to divide the cerebral cortex according to cytoarchitectural organization, and are, despite controversy, still very widely used as a standardized nomenclature which is superimposed on the somewhat variable gyral and sulcal anatomy.  The classification relies on the f...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...
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Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
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Callosal sulcus

The callosal sulcus is a sulcus of the brain, located on the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, deep within the medial longitudinal fissure.  Gross anatomy The callosal sulcus runs posteriorly from the genu to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It separates the cingulate gyrus dorsally...
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Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery, also known as median artery of corpus callosum, is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It courses within or posterior to the cingulate sulcus, in parallel orientation to the pericallosal artery. It divides to give two or more cortical branches to supply the...
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Callososeptal interface

The callososeptal interface is located on the inferior surface of the corpus callosum, where the septum pellucidum abuts it.  It came to radiological attention when T2 hyperintense lesions affecting this region were believed to be specific for multiple sclerosis. This has, as is usually the cas...
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  It's name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail".
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioral functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlli...
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Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus, and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the leve...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous tempor...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology While the term "cavum septum pellucidum" is generally accepted, it is grammatically incorrect. Since it denotes a space (cavum meaning cave) of the septum pellucidum, the seco...
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Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI), often incorrectly termed a cavum velum interpositum, is an anatomic variation where there is a dilatation of the normal cistern of the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect,...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) that lies immediately anterior to it, is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant.  Terminology The cavum vergae has also been refer...
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Central base of skull

The central base of skull is a region of the skull base centered on the pituitary fossa and includes surrounding structures. Despite no single universally accepted definition of this region, it is frequently used clinically and is conceptually useful particularly when considering tumors of the ...
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Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Central nervous system embryology

Central nervous system (CNS) embryology is complex, and below is a brief summary of its development.  The early CNS begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Within the neural tube stem cells generate the two major classes of cells that m...
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Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory co...
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Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter superior to the lateral ventricles and corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres, subjacent to the cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibers. Inferolaterally these fib...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
Article

Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise 4 paired deep grey matter nuclei deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order, from lateral to medial: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medi...
Article

Cerebellar tonsils

Gross Anatomy The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferiormedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surfa...
Article

Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern, also known as the pontocerebellar cistern, is a triangular CSF-filled subarachnoid cistern that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anter...
Article

Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled ...
Article

Cerebral hemisphere

The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave anteriorly, whi...
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Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles are the anterior part of the midbrain that connects the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami. They are paired, separated by the interpeduncular cistern, and contain the large white matter tracts that run to and from the cerebrum. Terminology The crus cerebri (cerebr...

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