Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also referred to as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a hematological malignancy characterized by the abnormal clonal proliferation of immature myeloid precursors (myeloblasts) or poorly differentiated cells of the hematopoietic system. It primary infiltrates the bone ...
AIDS-defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are:
bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent
CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognized.
primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL)
MALT lymphoma of the dura 5
secondary CNS lymphoma...
Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal. ...
Erythrocytosis (or polycythemia) is the presence of an excessive number of red blood cells in the circulation. It can be primary or arise secondarily to another pathology.
Absolute erythrocytosis is defined as a red cell mass which is >125% predicted for sex and age 2.
Gallbladder cholesterol polyps are the most common subtype of gallbladder polyps, representing more than 50% of all polyps. They are frequently seen in middle-aged women and are benign lesions, with no malignant potential.
For further details, please refer to the parental article on gallbladde...
Hemolytic anemia is a form of anemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly.
The patient presents with anemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1:
increased unconjugated biliru...
Hemosiderosis is a general term referring to the accumulation of hemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage.
Some causes include:
mainly depositional siderosis in RES
if >40 units transfused:...
There are many thoracic complications that can occur following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious.
Hepatosplenomegaly is simply the simultaneous presence of a pathologically-enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly).
Many, many infections can produce a mild concurrent enlargement of the liver and spleen. This list is by no means exhaustive!
Lead poisoning or plumbism is a multisystem condition due to the way in which lead interferes with the function of virtually every organ system. Plumbism most severely manifests due to its devastating effects on the CNS, but it also has important deleterious consequences on the skeletal, renal, ...
Leukemia is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the overproduction of immature (blasts) or abnormally differentiated cells of the hematopoietic system in the bone marrow that often, but not always, extends into the peripheral blood.
This article aims to provide an overview of leukemia as...
Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology.
Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET).
PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations:
primary pleural lymphoma
primary effusion lymphoma
secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
Primary immunodeficiency states are heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognized precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP).
SOP can be attributed to the following causes 1:
atypical pneumonias (e.g. Legi...
Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding.
Note that most (~8...
Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:
Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7.
Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standard deviations abov...