ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)
ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1.
This uses a standardized scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious nodules, and when to safely leave alone nodules that are benign/not suspicious.
Scoring is determined from five categories of ultrasound findings (figure 2). The higher the cumulative score, the higher the TR level and likelihood of malignancy.
One score is assigned from each of the following categories:
composition: (choose 1)
- cystic or completely cystic: 0 points
- spongiform: 0 points
- mixed cystic and solid: 1 point
- solid or almost completely solid: 2 points
echogenicity: (choose 1)
- anechoic: 0 points
- hyper- or isoechoic: 1 point
- hypoechoic: 2 points
- very hypoechoic: 3 points
shape: (choose 1) (assessed on the transverse plane)
- wider than tall: 0 points
- taller than wide: 3 points
margin: (choose 1)
- smooth: 0 points
- ill-defined: 0 points
- lobulated/irregular: 2 points
- extra-thyroidal extension: 3 points
Any and all findings in the final category are also added to the other four scores.
echogenic foci: (choose 1 or more)
- none: 0 points
- large comet tail artefact: 0 points
- macrocalcifications: 1 point
- peripheral/rim calcifications: 2 points
- punctate echogenic foci: 3 points
The findings in each category were detailed in the ACR committee's 2015 publication on a reporting lexicon 2. If multiple nodules (≥ 4) are present only the four highest scoring nodules, not necessarily the largest, should be scored, reported, and followed up.
Scoring and classification
TR1: 0 points
TR2: 2 points
- not suspicious
TR3: 3 points
- mildly suspicious
TR4: 4-6 points
- moderately suspicious
TR5: ≥7 points
- highly suspicious
- TR1: no FNA required
- TR2: no FNA required
TR3: ≥1.5 cm follow up, ≥2.5 cm FNA
- follow up: 1, 3 and 5 years
TR4: ≥1.0 cm follow up, ≥1.5 cm FNA
- follow up: 1, 2, 3 and 5 years
TR5: ≥0.5 cm follow up, ≥1.0 cm FNA
- annual follow up for up to 5 years
Biopsy is recommended for suspicious lesions (TR3 - TR5) with the above size criteria. If there are multiple nodules, the two with the highest ACR TI-RADS grades should be sampled (rather than the two largest).
Interval enlargement on follow up is felt to be significant if there is a increase of 20% and 2 mm in two dimensions, or a 50% increase in volume. If the ACR TI-RADS level increases between scans, an interval scan the following year is again recommended.
Cancer risk (ACR TI-RADS 2018)
- TR1: 0.3%
- TR2: 1.5%
- TR3: 4.8%
- TR4: 9.1%
- TR5: 35%
Developments leading to ACR TI-RADS 2017
The previous ACR white paper from 2015 2 developed a lexicon from descriptive reports and this has been updated by the stratified scoring system in the 2017 white paper, rather than relying on a pattern-based system. Outcomes and recommendations are supported by another ACR paper on incidental thyroid nodules 3 and data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programme of the National Cancer Institute.
The ACR system does not provide a grade for "normal thyroid gland" unlike other thyroid reporting systems, preserving ACR TI-RADS for lesion reporting. TR1 instead includes benign simple and/or spongiform cysts, each meeting 0 points from the criteria. Purely anechoic/cystic lesions are assigned 0 points, whereas if described as "very hypoechoic" they would be assigned 3 points leading to a likely fruitless FNA and probable patient/physician anxiety.
Frank invasion of surrounding structures is a unfavorable prognostic sign and is assigned 3 points. If minimal extra-thyroidal extension is suspected without frank invasion, especially with otherwise benign features, caution and experience should be used when reporting.
"Punctate echogenic foci" can encompass both microcalcifications and inspissated colloid, depending on technique and size of the colloid foci in a nodule. Unlike microcalcifications, foci of inspissated colloid are not associated with malignancy and they often appear differently to microcalcifications on closer inspection. Inspissated colloid is not a high risk feature.
Please note: This article (created April 2017) is based on a proposed classification system, supported by the ACR, which may help characterization of thyroid lesions. It may be used for risk stratification on the sole discretion of personnel or institution.
- 1. Tessler FN, Middleton WD, Grant EG, Hoang JK, Berland LL, et al. ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS): White Paper of the ACR TI-RADS Committee. (2017) Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR. 14 (5): 587-595. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2017.01.046 - Pubmed
- 2. Grant EG, Tessler FN, Hoang JK, Langer JE, Beland MD, Berland LL, Cronan JJ, Desser TS, Frates MC, Hamper UM, Middleton WD, Reading CC, Scoutt LM, Stavros AT, Teefey SA. Thyroid Ultrasound Reporting Lexicon: White Paper of the ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) Committee. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR. 12 (12 Pt A): 1272-9. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2015.07.011 - Pubmed
- 3. Hoang JK, Langer JE, Middleton WD, Wu CC, Hammers LW, Cronan JJ, Tessler FN, Grant EG, Berland LL. Managing incidental thyroid nodules detected on imaging: white paper of the ACR Incidental Thyroid Findings Committee. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR. 12 (2): 143-50. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2014.09.038 - Pubmed